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Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement.

a. A square with side length 1 unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area.

b. A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.

Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).

Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.

Give informal arguments for the formulas of the circumference of a circle and area of a circle using dissection arguments and informal limit arguments.

Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.

Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.

Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape.

Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.

Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.

Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.